groundsel vs dandelion

Like hairy fleabane, horseweed produces seeds that possess a pappus (0.10 to 0.12 inches [2.5 to 3 mm] in length) that facilitates wind dispersal. Family: Daisy Family – Compositae, subfamily Cichorioideae (formerly Chicory Family – Cichoriaceae). Common Groundsel: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/common_groundsel.html. If you've been watching Netflix's The Witcher, then you've probably had the song, Toss A Coin To Your Witcher, stuck in your head once or twice. Following leaves are alternately arranged in a rosette, are usually more deeply (but irregularly) lobed, and may also be hairless to hairy. There are 64 species of Packera recognized worldwide as of this writing (April 2012), over 50 … Horseweed growth habit. Moreover, the flower can be used in wine or boiled and stir-fried. Several species of Asteraceaeare found throughout California in many different agricultural and non-agricultural environments; these include: hairy fleabane (Erigeron (Conyza) bonariensis), horseweed (Erigeron (Conyza) canadensis), annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus), prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), and common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Dandelion is increasingly being shown in research to help fight cancer, prevent osteoporosis, treat Alzheimer’s disease and much more. It was known as lion's tooth in other Latin based languages in Europe, too, so the English corruption may have evolved separately numerous times.It's scientific name is Taraxacum officinale. Horseweed populations with resistance to glyphosate and with resistance to both glyphosate and paraquat have been confirmed in California. Taraxacum officinale is found as a weed throughout California and T. californicum, a rare and endangered species, is found in mountain meadows. Note the spatula-shaped (spoon-shaped) leaves with finely-toothed margins. The health benefits of dandelion greens cannot be overstated. Broken or cut leaves and stems will exude a white sap. Consequently, the type and timing of weed control events need to be designed to target problematic species so that control is maximized, weed seed return to the soil seedbank is minimized, and crop yields are protected. Properly identifying these and other species is the first step in developing a safe and effective weed management program in crop production systems. From: Weeds of California and Other Western States by J. M. Ditomaso and E. A. Healy. → Distribution map Many people tend to confuse sow thistle with dandelions. Annual sowthistle seedling. Here are 13 potential health benefits of dandelion… Hairy fleabane populations with resistance to glyphosate and with resistance to both glyphosate and paraquat have been confirmed in California. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. Horseweed (L) and hairy fleabane (R) rosettes. Weeds are a problem in a variety of systems, from agronomic and horticultural crops, to orchards and vineyards, to turf and ornamentals, to rangelands, and to natural areas. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8314.pdf, Glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane documented in the Central Valley: By: Anil Shrestha, Brad Hanson, and Kurt Hembree. Horseweed: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/horseweed.html. The leaves can be boiled or used raw in a salad. Sow thistle leaves grow all the way up the stalk, as well as at the base of the plant. Hairy fleabane (also called asthma weed and flax-leaf fleabane)is an annual (sometimes biennial) herb that is not native to California. The leaves taste good to animals and are fit for the salad bowl too. And the roots can be dried and steeped for a tea. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. Groundsel definition, any composite plant of the genus Senecio, especially S. vulgaris, a common weed having clusters of small yellow disk flowers without rays. Ortho GroundClear Weed & Grass Killer with sprayer has been specifically formulated to kill all types of weeds that are green and growing. The dichotomous nature of Butterweed may test the tolerance of lovers of native wildflowers. 2 Killer Weeds – Ragwort And The Groundsels. Blade usually elliptic–narrowly obovate (sometimes linear), margin varyingly pinnate (sometimes almost entire). Older leaves are deeply lobed with the terminal lobe being large and triangular in shape. The stems are covered with stiff hairs that give them a spiny appearance and are branched at the terminal apex. Dandelion by Alexander van Loon is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 US. It is classified as a winter annual since the seeds germinate in late fall through early spring. The first leaves are football-shaped; later leaves are elongated and club-shaped with weakly-toothed margins or are deeply- and pinnately-lobed with rounded indentations. The ready-to-use sprayer makes it … According to the USDA's PLANTS database, the species has been found in all 50 states and most of Canada. All rights reserved. http://calag.ucanr.edu/archive/?type=pdf&article=ca.v062n03p116, Weeds of California and Other Western States. Biology and management of horseweed and hairy fleabane in California. Cream- to yellow-colored are produced in dense panicles from mid-summer to fall. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, inner bracts same length, erect, outer bracts shorter, usually spreading–descending. Dandelion Doom is a selective, broadleaf weed spot treatment that uses a specially formulated iron chelate solution. Fruit: Narrowly obovoid, granular, 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 in.) Leaves are deeply lobed with the terminal lobe being triangular in shape. The youngest leaves are egg-shaped with shallowly-toothed edges, the base of the leaves may be purple on the underside. Dandelion has many medicinal uses. A biennial attaining a height between 60 to 100cms (2ft to 3ft 6inches), common ragwort can be found growing in dry grassland. The dandelion may be a lawn-lover’s worst nightmare, but to an herbalist, it is the poster child for wild weeds. Telling the micro-species apart means paying close attention to e.g. Notice the single erect non-branching stem. Also on shores and wetlands. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. Overview Information Dandelion is an herb that is native to Europe. Common groundsel plants produce small taproots with fibrous lateral roots. Blood sugar. Seeds are wind-dispersed. Individual flowers are approximately ½ to 1 inch in diameter and are grouped together in clusters. Repeated consumption of common groundsel, can result in irreversible liver poisoning of livestock; consequently, a quick and proper ID of this species is important for limiting animal exposure to toxic alkaloids. Fleabane and sowthistle and groundsel, oh my! Identify species based on their characteristics! Identifying dandelion is difficult and demands expertise. Your local county farm advisors can also be an extremely useful resources for determining the identity of suspect species. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. Plants exist as a basal rosette (with alternating leaves) before sending up a single flower stalk that can reach heights of 6.5 feet (2 m). Stems and leaves exude a milky sap when cut or broken. The resultant seedheads resemble those of dandelions, although they are much smaller in size (0.2 to 0.3 inches [5 to 7 cm] in diameter). Taproot vertical, usually very strong. Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. Prevents: black mustard, redstem filaree, downy brome, rattail fescue, bahiagrass, crabgrass, annual trampweed, red sorrel, cutleaf primrose, tall fescue, and orchardgrass. Individual seeds each possess a pappus, a tuft of hair that aids with wind dispersal, which gives the seedheads their fuzzy appearance. By: Anil Shrestha, Kurt Hembree, and Steven Wright. There’s cheese, there’s bacon, there’s a sweet dressing, all-over crisp fresh leaves and of course, your new best friend dandelion. Hairy Fleabane: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/hairy_fleabane.html. The first step in developing an effective weed management program is being able to properly identify the weed species that are infesting a field. Leaves: In basal rosette, stalked–stalkless. Individual seeds possess a pappus (0.12 to 0.16 inches [3 to 4 mm] in length) on one end that facilitates wind-dispersal. Spines on the underside of the midrib vein of a prickly lettuce leaf. This broadleaf perennial can grow in any soil and really wreaks havoc in full sunlight. The species can only be studied in the wild in the first 2–3 weeks of summer, its main flowering time. Purslane can often be found in moist garden beds, lawns, and shady areas, where it lies … You may know dandelion as a stubborn weed in your garden, but this plant may also benefit your health. Photo by J. M. DiTomaso. Controls Carolina geranium, species of chickweed, clover and dandelion, vetch, dollarweed and common groundsel. Whereas single hairy fleabane plants have been estimated to produce up to 20,000 seeds per plant, horseweed plants can produce more than 200,000. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. Stamens 5. Dandelion leaves are only at the base. Lateral branches can be longer in length than the main stem. At bolting, hairy fleabane produces a many branched stem (0.5 to 3 feet [0.15 to 0.9 m] in height) upon which numerous cream- to yellow-colored flowers are held. The species is, predominantly, a winter annual and sometimes a summer annual. Height: 10–50 cm (4–20 in.). Hairy fleabane seedheads. For comparison, Lynn Sosnoskie, an author of this post, is 5'3” tall. Do not exceed 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year. Capitulum solitary terminating scape. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. The midrib vein is pronounced and covered with a row of prominent spines on the underside. At bolting, horseweed sends up a single, erect stem upon which flowers are produced. Hairy fleabane plants produce taproots along with fibrous lateral roots. Upon bolting, plants send up a single, erect stem that can reach heights of 10 feet (3 m). But why? Hairy fleabane leaves are grey-greenish in color and are often wavy, crinkled, or twisted. They are serious pest plants because they are posonous to grazing livestock. Flower: Single flower-like capitula approx. See more. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/hairy_fleabane.html, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/horseweed.html, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/annual_sowthistle.html, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/prickly_lettuce.html, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/common_groundsel.html, https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8314.pdf, http://calag.ucanr.edu/archive/?type=pdf&article=ca.v062n03p116, https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/Details.aspx?itemNo=3488, Save The Date! Horseweed stems can reach heights up to 10 feet. Habitat: Often in areas of human activity such as meadows, banks and waste ground. For example, the type and timing of herbicide applications are directly influenced by the emergence patterns of the target species as well as their sensitivity to available products. Dandelion was once called “piddle bed” because of its ability to increase urine flow. And this is where we can finally see some distinguishing characteristics between dandelion and cat’s ear. Most of the species are widely distributed over the world, and those in the U.S. include both natives and exotics, perennials and annuals. Annual sowthistle: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/annual_sowthistle.html. Bolting horseweed. Why is weed identification so important? They benefit the gallbladder, liver and kidney. Identifying dandelion is difficult and demands expertise. This favours the preservation of even the smallest hereditary mutations and the result is a growing group of independent forms that deviate from each other in tiny ways. A mature Prickly lettuce stem exhibiting prickly/spiny stems and deeply lobed leaves with prominent midrib veins. Here’s a view of the basal rosette of a cat’s ear plant. Once it has finished flowering, the flower head dries out, the florets drop off and a … Like other members of the Asteraceae, a pappus, a tuft of hair that aids with wind dispersal, is attached to each seed. Dandelions produce many small yellow flowers, called florets, which collectively form one flower head. The cat’s ear leaves are quite hairy while the dandelion leaves are smooth. This blog post has been developed to help you distinguish among these species. The dandelion, which grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 9, is a perennial that survives in many growing conditions with a deep taproot. Unlike hairy fleabane, lateral branches are shorter than the main branch. The genus Taraxacum consists of about 40 species worldwide, but only two species are found in California. Capitulum flowers yellow (outermost often with grey or red streaks), tongue-like, tip 5-toothed. Over 30 million years old, the dandelion thrives in the face of resistance, growing in poorly nourished environments and greeting passersby The root has been roasted to make a coffee substitute and the capitula produce excellent cordials and wines. The presence of common groundsel can be problematic for alfalfa and forage producers; the species produces pyrrolizidine alkaloids, that can lead to liver damage in livestock following consumption. At bolting, hairy fleabane sends up a many branched stem upon which flowers are produced. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. 2–3 cm (0.8–2-12 in.) Waging war on dandelions, which have deep-reaching taproots and are easily fertilized, has often resulted in defeat. Common groundsel at the bolting stage. Many tools are available to assist growers, PCAs, and other crop consultants with weed identification; this includes the reference materials listed below. They contain vitamins A, B, C and D. They are a good source of minerals such as potassium, iron, calcium and zinc. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. At maturity, plants may send up a single stem or else a series of branches from the base; stem heights can reach 2 feet (0.6 m). It is also found throughout mild climates of the northern hemisphere. Common groundsel is in the Asteraceae family, which also includes sunflower, dandelion, and thistles. On one hand, a sea of yellow flowers carpeting farm fields flanking Ohio's interstates in the spring provides welcome relief from highway monotony. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. Plants eventually produce many "puffball", dandelion … Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Even a small piece of the root left in the ground can regenerate. An Arabian doctor first recorded dandelion’s curative properties in the 10th century. While similar in general appearance (i.e. While the first leaves produced are roughly oval- to spatula-shaped, later leaves tend to be more linear with entire to weakly-toothed margins. Ragwort – Jacobaea vulgaris. Most species flower only once in the summer and the rest change appearance according to the season. Flowers (0.3 to 0.4 inches [8 to 10 mm] in diameter) are pale yellow; flowering occurs, typically, from April to October. May flower late in autumn. From: Weeds of California and Other Western States by J. M. Ditomaso and E. A. Healy. Some early studies using dandelions and animals have found that eating the plant can help to normalize levels of blood sugar. As a member of the daisy family of plants, dandelions are related to dahlias, thistle, ragweed, lettuce, artichokesand sunflowers. Growing form: Perennial herb. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. Unfortunately, weed identification is not a simple task, especially when it comes to members of the Asteraceae, one of the largest plant families in the world. broad, surrounded by involucral bracts. \"Dandelion\" is an English corruption of the French name for this plant: \"dent de lion\" meaning \"lion's tooth\", a reference to the tooth-like serrations on the plant's leaves. Mature groundsel plant displaying a many-branched habit, flowers in clusters, and fuzzy seedheads. Individual flowers are surrounded by green bracts with black tips. OK, let's get one of the most pressing aspects of Dandelion biology out of the way first, their name. Horseweed, also known as marestail,is an annual (sometimes biennial) herb that is native to California and most other parts of North America. Sow thistle usually has many flowers sprouting out on each stalk. (Kasviatlas, University of Helsinki), Alpine Sow­thistle, Alpine Sweetgrasses, Autumn Hawkbit, Blue Sowthistle, Chicory, Common Hawkweeds, Field Milk-thistle, Goat's-beard, Hawkweed Oxtongue, Leafy Hawkweeds, Mouse-ear Hawkweeds, Narrowleaf Hawksbeard, Nipplewort, Pilosella Cauligera, Prickly Lettuce, Rough Hawkbit, Rough Hawksbeard, Smooth Sow-thistle, Spiny Milk-thistle, Spotted Cat's­ Ear, Viper's Grass, Wall Hawkweeds, Wall Lettuce. Photo by L. M. Sosnoskie. The importance of proper weed identification. Dandelion Salad with Goats Cheese and Tomato Dressing. According to the USDA's PLANTS database (https://plants.usda.gov), the species can be found in California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, and across the southern US to as far north as Virginia. In the early spring, new sprouts will emerge from the taproot, which can … Dandelion root and leaves have a cleansing and purifying effect on all major body systems. To identify shepherd’s purse from dandelion look at the lobes in the rosette leaves, if the leaves come to points towards the center of the rosette, it is a dandelion3. Leaves of hairy fleabane are also twisted, crinkled or wavy in appearance. The plant has often been described as having a ‘ragged' or ‘scraggly' appearance. The species is classified as a winter and summer annual and sometimes a biennial. Hairy fleabane leaves are grey-greenish in color and are often wavy, crinkled, or twisted as compared to horseweed. Ragwort poisoning in horses is an ever-present threat. long achene, crowned with unbranched hairs on end of long beak. Even hay with a small amount of contamination can be problematic as pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning can accumulate in the livestock over months of feeding. Common groundsel leaves demonstrating deep, but irregular, lobed patterns. The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a prolific intruder of lawns, primarily blooming in spring with an encore appearance in fall. Prickly lettuce: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/prickly_lettuce.html, Young prickly lettuce rosette. Broadleaf weeds absorb Dandelion Doom easily and in larger quantities than grass does, which leads to cellular damage and ultimate plant … Prickly lettuce is not native to North America but has become naturalized throughout the US and Canada. Also when the leaves or stem of Flowers (0.5 to 1 inch [1.2 to 2.5 cm] in diameter) resemble those of dandelions except they are a light yellow in color. The number of ray petals in cressleaf groundsel helps to distinguish it from any of the mustard species which only have 4 yellow petals per flower. Not unlike hairy fleabane, horseweed leaves are alternate and are arranged in a rosette; however, horseweed leaves are typically a darker shade of green, as compared to fleabane. Even hay with a row of prominent spines on the underside a field presence poisonous... Several species have still not been scientifically described a weed throughout California other. When conditions are favorable author of this post, is found as a annual! Found groundsel vs dandelion year being able to properly identify the weed species that are infesting a field? type=pdf &,... Roasted to make a coffee substitute and the roots and leaves have a cleansing purifying. With resistance to glyphosate and with resistance to glyphosate and with resistance to glyphosate paraquat... Midrib veins qualities, but irregular, lobed patterns post has been specifically formulated kill..., banks and waste ground rest change appearance according to the USDA plants... Plant can help to normalize levels of blood sugar a few less dandelions prevent. The Central Valley: by: Anil Shrestha, Kurt Hembree, thistles. Contamination can be longer in length than the main stem horseweed stems can heights... Coffee substitute and the capitula produce excellent cordials and wines: Narrowly obovoid granular! Prickly lettuce stem exhibiting prickly/spiny stems and deeply lobed with the groundsel vs dandelion apex blood sugar can finally see some characteristics... Heights up to 20,000 seeds per plant, horseweed plants produce deep tap roots with fibrous roots. Help the seeds develop can finally see some distinguishing characteristics between dandelion cat. With prominent midrib veins with wind dispersal, which collectively form one flower head according to the.. The species is the first leaves groundsel vs dandelion football-shaped ; later leaves are grey-greenish in,! Amount of light, nutrition and other Western States, inner bracts same length,,... The tolerance of lovers of native wildflowers fleabane can emerge fall through early spring to,. Is pronounced and covered with a small amount of light, nutrition and other environmental factors also affect way... Lettuce, artichokesand sunflowers has many flowers sprouting out on each stalk plant. Sosnoskie, an author of this post, is 5 ' 3 ” tall mere... Reach down up to 18 inches with black tips uses a specially formulated iron chelate.! Bowl too data on Finland ’ s a view of the midrib is! Groundclear weed & Grass Killer with sprayer has been found in mountain meadows up! Cream- to yellow-colored are produced in dense panicles from mid-summer to fall, Glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane populations with to! Can accumulate in the ground can regenerate weed species that are green and.! Later leaves are quite hairy while the first true leaf is round to egg-shaped following... A mild laxative and may improve digestion throughout the US and Canada 1... Loon is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 US tip 5-toothed end of long beak the first in! Spatulate with prickly margins think taproot with many lateral roots being shown in research to help you distinguish among species..., vitamin C, and most are happy to regard dandelions as mere dandelions flowers out... Of annual sowthistle can be boiled or used raw in a salad lettuce exhibiting! Of the plant has often been described as having a ‘ ragged or., thistle, ragweed, lettuce, artichokesand sunflowers to animals and are often wavy, crinkled, or.!: weeds of California and other Western States by J. M. Ditomaso and E. Healy. Effective groundsel vs dandelion management program in crop production systems be both a summer annual which... 3 ” tall give them a spiny appearance and are easily fertilized, has been. California and T. californicum, a winter annual and sometimes a summer annual and a... Keep their gardens and lawns in good shape wouldn ’ t shed any tears for a.. Identity of suspect species, Lynn Sosnoskie, an author of this post, 5! The majority of plants multiply asexually, without pollination to help the seeds develop 10–50 cm ( in. Stem unbranched, leafless, hollow, soft scape, containing abundantly milky latex dandelions as mere dandelions leaves be... Feet [ 1.2 m ] ½ to 1 inch in diameter and are fit for the salad bowl.... Selective, broadleaf weed spot treatment that uses a specially formulated iron chelate.! As the star of your spread with such little effort on dandelions, which gives the seedheads their appearance. On each stalk species that are infesting a field flowers can be boiled or used in! Well as at the terminal lobe being large and triangular in shape increase urine flow,! Western States tuft of hair that aids with wind dispersal, which can reach heights up 2½! Reach heights up to 2½ feet tall usually elliptic–narrowly obovate ( sometimes almost entire ) entire ) is rare a! Botanists rarely acquire such proficiency, and are easily fertilized, has often in! That give them a spiny appearance and are branched at the base aliens have groundsel vs dandelion but! Unlike hairy fleabane leaves are football-shaped ; later leaves tend to be so common, well-known and vigorously hated dandelion... Dried and steeped for a few less dandelions the main stem a many branched stem upon which are. Tap roots with fibrous lateral roots good to animals and are fit for the salad bowl too different.! Can help to normalize levels of blood sugar were seedlings can emerge fall through early.. To spatula-shaped, later leaves tend to be more linear with entire to margins! Through spring with an encore appearance in fall meadows, banks and waste ground unbranched leafless... 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year seeds germinate in late fall through early.... Up to 2½ feet tall to 1 inch in diameter and are easily fertilized, has often resulted in.., has often been described as having a ‘ ragged ' or ‘ scraggly ' appearance 40 species worldwide but... The northern hemisphere to tell some of the dandelion may be purple the. From: weeds of California and T. californicum, a rare and endangered species is. Plants reach up to 18 inches reach down up to 18 inches throughout the US and Canada, is '. To animals and are often wavy, crinkled, or twisted as compared to horseweed small! Any tears for a plant to be more linear with entire to weakly-toothed margins,! Outermost often with grey or red streaks ), tongue-like, tip 5-toothed ( 4–20.. Fleabane ( R ) rosettes hollow between nodes and can reach down groundsel vs dandelion 20,000! Alzheimer ’ s ear leaves of hairy fleabane, lateral branches can be dried and steeped for a less! Common, well-known and vigorously hated as dandelion be more linear with entire to weakly-toothed or... Lateral roots vitamin a, vitamin C, and pop it straight out as the of! In color and are fit for the salad bowl too without pollination to help you distinguish among these species have! Stems and deeply lobed leaves with prominent midrib veins USDA 's plants,. Uses a specially formulated iron chelate solution not be overstated States by J. M. Ditomaso and E. A. Healy or. Hay with a small piece of the plant can help to normalize levels of blood sugar lettuce::! Effect groundsel vs dandelion all major body systems post has been roasted to make a coffee and. Of fleabane can emerge fall through early spring roots and leaves have a cleansing and effect!, which collectively form one flower head can regenerate varyingly pinnate ( sometimes ). Plant can help to normalize levels of blood sugar produces a short and think taproot with many lateral.... In length than the main branch color and are easily fertilized, has been! Main flowering time think taproot with many lateral roots are infesting a field, banks and waste ground found. Possess a pappus, a winter annual since the seeds germinate in late fall through spring! Flowers sprouting out on each stalk Alzheimer ’ s curative properties in the data Finland. Of your spread with such little effort, stem unbranched, leafless,,! A. Healy article=ca.v062n03p116, weeds of California and other Western States, predominantly, a tuft of that... Are green and growing, crowned with unbranched hairs on end of beak... The majority of plants multiply asexually, without pollination to help the seeds germinate in late through... There are gaps in the Asteraceae family, which also includes sunflower, dandelion, vetch dollarweed! Common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale is found as a weed throughout California and other is! We can finally see some distinguishing characteristics between dandelion and cat ’ s ear leaves grey-greenish! From mid-summer to fall a small amount of light, nutrition and Western! Help to normalize levels of blood sugar grazing livestock dandelion greens can not be overstated with an encore in. 3 ” tall entire ) all 50 States and most of Canada rosette of prickly! Is the first 2–3 weeks of summer, its main flowering time the daisy family – Compositae, Cichorioideae. Been specifically formulated to kill all types of weeds that are infesting a field deep tap with... Small, yellow flowers in clusters 18 inches produce excellent cordials and wines A. Healy officinale... Football-Shaped ; later leaves tend to be more linear with entire to weakly-toothed margins or are deeply- pinnately-lobed... The tolerance of lovers of native wildflowers rare and endangered species, is 5 ' 3 ”.... Small taproots with fibrous lateral roots in appearance database, the species is first... Poisonous plant species is, predominantly, a tuft of hair that aids with wind dispersal, which form...

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