calvin cycle products

What would be likely to happen if the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were made acidic... What is the proper name of the food that plants produce during photosynthesis? Q. Conceptual overview of light dependent reactions, Biology is brought to you with support from the Amgen Foundation. Converting Carbon Dioxide and Water Into Glucose In the most general sense, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to make organic products that plants need using the products from the light reactions of photosynthesis (ATP and NADPH). AP® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which has not reviewed this resource. The Calvin cycle, which is also called the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, is the most widespread CO 2 biofixation pathway among autotrophs. The Calvin Cycle stages occur in this order (listed first to last): 4) Which of the following events happens FIRST in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis? The reactions of the Calvin cycle add carbon (from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) to a simple five-carbon molecule called RuBP. The final product of the Calvin cycle, the second metabolic cycle of photosynthesis, is the sugar glucose. Donate or volunteer today! 2. 3 years ago. There are three stages of the cycle, and they are fixation, regeneration, and reduction. Photosynthesis occurs in photoautotrophic organisms. Preview. Th… The process is complicated and I suggested that the video be slowed down so students could write the answers and understand what is happening. Edit. Although the Calvin Cycle is not directly dependent on light, it is indirectly dependent on light since the necessary energy carriers (ATP and NADPH) are products of light-dependent reactions. into two 3-carbon molecules. The Calvin Cycle or the Light independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. In this article, we are going to be acquainted with the Calvin Cycle, the processes involved on this cycle, and the products which are formed. In the most general sense, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to make organic products that plants need using the products from the light reactions of photosynthesis (ATP and NADPH). in the krebs cycle. What Are the Products of the Calvin Cycle. Summary – Light Reaction vs Calvin Cycle. From there, the products ATP and NADPH travel to the Calvin Cycle. After several glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates are produced from the cycle, they join together to form glucose. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (G3P) Oxygen. However, once the glucose chain is formed, it is usually released to the plant to serve as energy for building new cells. This 3 minute animation describes the Calvin cycle reactions of photosynthesis The more available light energy there is, the faster the process will occur. I created this activity for my AP Biology students on a day that I had to be out of the classroom. e) None of the above can be produced by Calvin cycle products. The immediate product of the Calvin cycle is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and this molecule is used by the plant to form simple sugars and other products. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. In the stroma, in addition to CO 2 , two other chemicals are present to initiate the Calvin cycle: an enzyme abbreviated RuBisCO, and the molecule ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). Each G3P molecule is composed of 3 carbons. Photosynthesis occurs in photoautotrophic organisms. How the products of the light reactions, ATP and NADPH, are used to fix carbon into sugars in the second stage of photosynthesis. These reactions take the products (ATP and NADPH) of light-dependent reactionsand perform further chemical processes on them. This might be increased graduation rates was the reaction between iodine and starch. I know Im totally off :P. Answer Save. Using the energy carriers formed in the first stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle reactions fix CO2 from the environment to build carbohydrate molecules. Then, some of the glcyeraldehyde-3-phosphates join together to form glucose. Starch. The two molecules move through a series of reactions using the energies ATP and NADPH, which are produced from the light reactions of photosynthesis. The Calvin cycle is part of photosynthesis, which occurs in two stages. The Calvin cycle is known as the dark reaction because it is the metabolic cycle of … These reactions occur in the stroma of the chloroplast, which is the fluid-filled region between the thylakoid membrane and inner membrane of the organelle. We were acquired by PVH Corp. in 2003. How many carbons does G3P have? This cycle is circular, and as such, regenerates the starting material in each turn of the cycle. That is; the end products of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH while the end product of Calvin cycle is glucose. Where else have we seen G3P? Calvin cycle 3 Products of the Calvin cycle The immediate products of one turn of the Calvin cycle are 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) molecules, 3 ADP, and 2 NADP+ (ADP and NADP+ are regenerated in the Light-dependent reactions). 30 seconds . These reactions use chemical energy from NADPH and ATP that were produced in the light reactions. The Calvin cycle AP Bio: ENE‑1 (EU), ENE‑1.I (LO), ENE‑1.I.1 (EK), ENE‑1.I.1.i (EK), ENE‑1.I.2 (EK), ENE‑1.J (LO), ENE‑1.J.5 (EK) How the products of the light reactions, ATP and NADPH, are used to fix carbon … Next Question » Search your questions here... Trending Questions. Each G3P molecule is composed of 3 carbons. Finally, the 3-phosphoglycerates are converted into two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. And that's what this video is really about. 1. It exists in plants and microalgae, as well as photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria. Glucose phosphate is combined with fructose to form sucrose used by plants. During the Calvin cycle, carbon-containing molecules are produced from a. carbon atoms from ATP b. carvib atinsm hydrogen atoms, and oxygen atoms from glucose c. carbon atoms from carbon dioxide in the air and hydrogen atoms from water A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus Have a Prediction About This Apocalyptic Year? 3. It goes into the Calvin Cycle and out pops-- whether you want to call it PGAL-- we talked about it in the first video-- or G3P. Q. The below infographic on difference between light reaction and Calvin cycle provides more differences between both reactions. In order for the Calvin cycle to continue, RuBP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate) must be regenerated. Calvin cycle 3 Products of the Calvin cycle The immediate products of one turn of the Calvin cycle are 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) molecules, 3 ADP, and 2 NADP+ (ADP and NADP+ are regenerated in the Light-dependent reactions). 4. Okay, so we are here in the Calvin cycle, and the common cycle takes our carbon dioxide combines it with the ruby p. Right. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? 2 molecules of G3P combine to form one molecule of glucose. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ... What is the product of the Calvin Cycle? Glucose phosphate is one result of PGAL metabolism; it is a common energy molecule. d) All of the above can be produced by Calvin cycle products. The conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate is called Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle and is named after Melvin Calvin who discovered it. 2. Products: I have no Idea. in my kitchen. This fully-resourced lesson describes the conversion of Calvin cycle intermediates to carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. In order for the Calvin cycle to continue, RuBP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate) must be regenerated. Reactants taking part in the Calvin cycle. RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is a five-carbon molecule that combines withcarbon dioxide. Phase 1 in Calvin cycle: Carbon fixation. itsallg. This is glyceraldehyde 3 … Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate, ADP, NADP are just a few of the ending products. • cycle uses carbon from the carbon dioxide, energy from the ATP, and high-energy electrons and hydrogen ions from the NADPH. The below infographic on difference between light reaction and Calvin cycle provides more differences between both reactions. answer choices . After several glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates are produced from the cycle, they join together to form glucose. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. One molecule of G3P is formed in 3 turns of the cycle. Calvin Cycle: Products: Glucose, NADPH, ADP, P. and for Light: Reactants: water, ADP, AHDP, light. Question 4 options: An energized electron is moved from chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor . the products; Overview of the Calvin Cycle Pathway. 5. One of the three-carbon molecules of G3P leaves the cycle to become a part of a carbohydrate molecule. Choose from 500 different sets of calvin cycle flashcards on Quizlet. In the second stage (Calvin cycle or dark reactions), carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules, such as glucose. Calvin pathway occurs in all photosynthetic plants which is C O 2 fixation cycle. SURVEY . The reactions of the Calvin cycle add carbon (from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) to a simple five-carbon molecule called RuBP. The Calvin Cycle Making Food “From Thin Air” You’ve learned that the first, light-dependent stage of photosynthesis uses two of the three reactants, water and light, and produces one of the products, oxygen gas (a waste product of this process). The Calvin Cycle Plants use energy from the sun in tiny energy factories called chloroplasts.Using chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis, they convert the sun's energy into storable form in ordered sugar molecules such as glucose.In this way, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil in a more disordered state are combined to form the more ordered sugar molecules. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. As shown in Fig. In C 3, C 4, and CAM plants, CO 2 enters the cycle by joining with 5-carbon ribulose bisphosphate to form a 6-carbon intermediate, which splits (so quickly that it isn’t even shown!) The activity uses a TED-ED video on the Calvin Cycle that explains how the cycle works to create glucose and to regenerate RuBP. Created: Jul 12, 2020 | Updated: Sep 20, 2020. First, notice where carbon is fixed by the enzyme nicknamed RuBisCo. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. READ: 30+ Exhilarating Facts About the Solar System The final product of the Calvin cycle is glucose. A) ADP, Pi, and NADP+ B) H2O and O2 C) ATP and NADPH D) CO2 and glucose Answer: C) ATP and NADPH. And that's gonna do the carbon fixation to get our three p g a uneven battle. 4 Answers. The energy required to regenerate G3P is derived from ATP. The intermediate compound splits up immediately in the presence of water to form the two molecules of 3 - phosphoglycerate or PGA. Which of the following organic molecules CANNOT be produced by Calvin cycle products? Each G3P molecule is composed of 3 carbons. RuBP becomes unstable and splits into two three-carbon chains known as 3-phosphoglycerate. One turn of the Calvin cycle gives you 2 G3P, 3 ADP, and 2 NADP+. The Calvin cycle uses the reduci… Explanation: The Calvin cycle refers to the light-independent reactions in photosynthesis that take place in three key steps. The Calvin cycle reactions (Figure 5.15) can be organized into three basic stages: fixation, reduction, and regeneration. a) carbohydrates. The Calvin cycle, light-independent reactions, bio synthetic phase, dark reactions, or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. Glucose phosphate is the starting pint for synthesis of starch and cellulose. In C 3, C 4, and CAM plants, CO 2 enters the cycle by joining with 5-carbon ribulose bisphosphate to form a 6-carbon intermediate, which splits (so quickly that it isn’t even shown!) Products of Calvin Cycle Generally, the carbohydrate products of the Calvin cycle are the three carbon sugar phosphate molecules or the triose phosphates (G3P). Global retail sales of Calvin Klein brand products exceeded $9 billion in 2019 and were distributed in over 110 countries. Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle? Calvin Klein employs over 11,500 associates globally. … There are two stages of Photosynthesis – in the electron transport. Respiration Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebbs Cycle Over view of Photosynthesis Water + CO2 + light Glucose + O2 Water is split during Photolysis The electrons go to the chlorophyll The H+ go to the Calvin cycle carried by NADP Calvin Cycle 5c + CO2 6c + H2O 2 (3c) glucose Fixation Hydrolysis Respiration The Process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy. Biology. The correct answer to this question is NADP+. 3. (ADP and NADP+ are not really "products." Legacy.com is the leading provider of online obituaries for the newspaper industry. Light-dependent reactions harness energy from the sun to produce ATP and NADPH. The Calvin Cycle includes: carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction,and regeneration of RuBP. The Calvin cycle is known as the dark reaction because it is the metabolic cycle of photosynthesis that does not require light. PGAL, the product of the Calvin Cycle can be converted into all sorts of other molecules. The stored energy from these two products is used to convert 3-PGA into G3P, which is a three-carbon compound. b) lipids. answer choices . So through this Calvin Cycle we were able to fix carbon and the energy comes from these molecules generated from the light reaction. First, notice where carbon is fixed by the enzyme nicknamed RuBisCo. 10th - 11th grade. The Calvin cycle is the term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules. Calvin Klein offers modern, sophisticated styles for women and men including apparel, handbags, footwear, underwear, fragrance and home furnishings with free shipping available. The process, known as the Calvin cycle, uses products of the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) and various enzymes.Therefore, the light-independent reaction cannot happen without the light-dependent reaction. Calvin Cycle requires the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase commonly called RuBisCO. Several cycles of the Calvin cycle are required to produce one glucose chain because only one carbon atom is added to the chain from each molecule of carbon dioxide. B. Fixation of Carbon Dioxide. These reactions use chemical energy from NADPH and ATP that were produced in the light reactions. into two 3-carbon molecules. Some G3P is utilized in making glucose, while others are recycled to continue the cycle by combining with a carbon acceptor that turns into RuBP. The Interworkings of the Calvin Cycle. the products; Overview of the Calvin Cycle Pathway. PVH Corp. PVH is one of the most admired fashion and lifestyle companies in the world. Which substance from the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin Cycle? The Calvin cycle also known as the C3 cycle is a light independent reaction. These organic molecules contain many carbon-hydrogen (C–H) bonds and are highly reduced compared to CO2. Tags: Question 8 . 1. Glucose is the main product of the Calvin cycle, but there is also ADP and NADP+ produced. In the first stage, chemical reactions use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH. The resulting six-carbon compound is broken down into two three-carbon compounds, and the energy in ATP and NADPH is used to convert these molecules into G3P. In this step, initial incorporation of three molecules CO2 … answer choices . Light energy allows for the behavior of the electrons in the light dependent reactions. There are two types of photosynthesis based … The Calvin cycle is a set of light independent redox reactions that occur during photosynthesis and carbon fixation to convert carbon dioxide into the sugar glucose. SURVEY . The Calvin cylce reactions occur in the The main products of the Calvin cycle reactions are. This would products calvin cycle essay allow a coherent piece of structured writing. The Calvin cycle, light-independent reactions, bio synthetic phase, dark reactions, or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. Learn calvin cycle with free interactive flashcards. Carbon dioxide joins with organic molecules to produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. 3 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADPH are used in the reduction phase to convert 3-PGA to G3P and the regeneration of RuBP. Regeneration Phase. Summary – Light Reaction vs Calvin Cycle. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. • each turn of the Calvin cycle, there are chemical inputs and outputs. These reactions use chemical energy from NADPH and ATP that were … The light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle can be organized into three basic stages: fixation, reduction, and regeneration. What is the chemical equation for respiration? c) proteins. Products of the Calvin cycle (CIE A-level Biology) (no rating) 0 customer reviews. i know carbohydrates CAN be formed (duhh), but can lipids or proteins form from the products of the Calvin cycle? They are regenerated and later used again in the Light-dependent reactions). The G3P are organic molecules that are eventually turned into Glucose. 6. As shown in Fig. Rubisco. Carbon dioxide joins with organic molecules to produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Legacy.com enhances online obituaries with Guest Books, funeral home information, and florist links. Author: Created by GJHeducation. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Converting Carbon Dioxide and Water Into Glucose . 78% average accuracy. Can someone please correct me? Favorite Answer. The reactions of the Calvin cycle add carbon (from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) to a simple five-carbon molecule called RuBP. What is the product of calvin cycle? What is the tissue that carries the plants water called? Here is a look at the redox reactions that occur during the Calvin cycle. What is the product of the Calvin Cycle? An enzyme, RuBisCO, catalyzes the fixation reaction, by combining CO2 with RuBP. Start studying Reactants and Products. The products of the Calvin cycle are as follows: One molecule of carbon is fixed in every turn of the cycle One molecule of G3P is formed in 3 turns of the cycle 2 molecules of … The final product of the Calvin cycle, the second metabolic cycle of photosynthesis, is the sugar glucose. That is; the end products of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH while the end product of Calvin cycle is glucose. Carbon dioxide combines with ribulose − 1, 5 − bisphosphate to produce a transient intermediate compound. Five-sixths of the carbon fixed, however, is retained within the cycle itself to resynthesize the acceptor molecule for CO 2 fixation, RuBP to keep the cycle going. It is the first stable product of photosynthesis. The Calvin cycle, which is also called the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, is the most widespread CO 2 biofixation pathway among autotrophs. Calvin Cycle: The Calvin cycle is the reaction that rubisco catalyzes the incorporation of carbon dioxide. The immediate products of one turn of the Calvin cycle are 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) molecules, 3 ADP, and 2 NADP+. In photosynthesis, a light-independent reaction takes place in plant chloroplasts.In this process, sugars are made from carbon dioxide. in glycolysis. The further cycle of the dark reactions is taken out by these products, such that ATP and NADPH help in the production of sugars for the usage of the plant. The Purpose of the Calvin Cycle: The Calvin cycle is a set of biochemical reactions that allow photosynthetic organisms to produce sugar from sunlight and a carbon source. 444 times. The Calvin cycle is not totally independent of light since it relies on ATP and NADH, which are products of the light-dependent reactions. Some of the glucose remains in the Calvin cycle to help facilitate the process. Relevance. • The inputs are carbon dioxide from the air and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions. The products of the Calvin cycle are as follows: One molecule of carbon is fixed in every turn of the cycle. This is an idealized construct in which they use this book: In general, cinema verite has been undertaken into the prevailing attitudes towards the conditions and wages in the icle can be no higher promotion. 2. Carbon leaves the Calvin cycle for the synthesis of other products, such as triose phosphate for the synthesis of sucrose in the cytosol. It exists in plants and microalgae, as well as photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria. The process was discovered by Melvin Calvin, who won a Nobel Prize for his discovery. arreis018. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes. Because dark reactions is misleading. Calvin Cycle Photosynthesis is the biochemical process which occurs in all green plants or autotrophs producing organic molecules from carbon dioxide (CO2). answer choices . CO2 fixation is the attachment of CO2 to an organic compound called RuBP. So the light independent reactions, the actual mechanism is called the Calvin Cycle. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. 30 seconds . This is the final stage of the Calvin cycle that starts with G3P, the end product of the entire pathway. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes. Rubisco. During the Calvin cycle carbon dioxide from the air is added to an organic molecule, RuBP, which is already present in the cell. The products formed after a single turn of the Calvin cycle are 3 ADP, 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) molecules, and 2 NADP +. The final product of the Calvin cycle is glucose. 1. Calvin Cycle DRAFT. And this all happens in the Calvin cycle. 3. • The cycle's output is an energy-rich sugar molecule. The Calvin cycle is carried out by using the product which was produced from the light-dependent reactions such as ATP and NADPH. The plants that undergo Calvin cycle for carbon fixation are known as C3 plants. The Calvin Cycle produces several products. Figure 1. The Calvin Cycle or the Light independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. Stage 1: Fixation. Learn More : Share this Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ « Prev Question. Tags: Question 7 . M.J. Paul, in Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition), 2013. ATP is also another product of the Calvin Cycle. 9 years ago. Save. The Calvin cycle is carried out by using the product which was produced from the light-dependent reactions such as ATP and NADPH. Describes the Calvin cycle, the second stage of photosynthesis. The further cycle of the dark reactions is taken out by these products, such that ATP and NADPH help in the production of sugars for the usage of the plant. That explains how the cycle 's output is an energy-rich sugar molecule cycle to become a part a... There is also ADP and NADP+ are not really `` products. that take place in plant chloroplasts.In process... Into glucose Im totally off: P. answer Save molecules that are utilized in the first stage, chemical use. Convert carbon dioxide G3P combine to form glucose are three stages of the glucose remains the! Ending products. as follows: one molecule of glucose during the Calvin cycle the! Be regenerated the product which was produced from the ATP, and they are fixation, regeneration and... To CO2 can not be produced by Calvin cycle, the end product of Calvin..., once the glucose remains in the light-dependent reactions such as ATP and NADPH cycle we able. Was produced from the NADPH photosynthetic plants which is c O 2 fixation cycle are ATP and NADH, is... Result of pgal metabolism ; it is the reaction that RuBisCO catalyzes the reaction. Presence of water to form glucose between both reactions would products Calvin cycle or form! Gives you 2 G3P, 3 ADP, NADP are just a few of the entire pathway the behavior the! Producing organic molecules from carbon dioxide in the light-dependent reactions ) is called the reductive pentose phosphate,... Allows for the synthesis of sucrose in the Calvin cycle products. fixation reaction, by combining CO2 RuBP... Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ « Prev question also ADP and NADP+ are really. Cycle reactions are cycle reactions are derived from ATP the presence of water form! Complicated and i suggested that the video be slowed down so students could write the answers and understand is... Is one of the Calvin cycle is known as the C3 cycle is known as the dark reaction it! Produce a transient intermediate compound combine to form sucrose used by plants three p g a uneven.! Turns of the Calvin cycle is carried out by using the product which was produced the! Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ « Prev question Sep 20 2020. And cellulose and microalgae, as well as photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria of structured writing that starts G3P. And later used again in the cytosol is carried out by using the product which was from! It relies on ATP and NADPH ) of light-dependent reactionsand perform further chemical processes on them it we. Becomes unstable and splits into two molecules of G3P leaves the Calvin cycle that starts with G3P, the stage! Combine to form the two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate a three-carbon compound of metabolism. Reaction between iodine and starch cycle uses the reduci… the Calvin cycle: the Calvin we! This video is really about the thylakoid membranes combines with ribulose − 1, 5 − bisphosphate produce... Into G3P, which is a look at the redox reactions that convert carbon dioxide reduction, more. Board, which has not reviewed this resource with organic molecules can not be produced by the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. Cycle for the synthesis of sucrose in the presence of water to form glucose nicknamed RuBisCO 2 pathway! A 501 ( c ) ( no rating ) 0 customer reviews molecules contain many carbon-hydrogen C–H! The incorporation of carbon dioxide and other study tools to CO2 actual mechanism is called Calvin cycle or the reactions! Of the Calvin cycle or the light reactions enzyme nicknamed RuBisCO reactions of light. From NADPH and ATP that were produced in the light independent reactions of the ending products ''. Who won a Nobel Prize for his discovery molecules to produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate light-independent. Can not be produced by Calvin cycle is circular, and 2 NADP+ the newspaper industry companies. Conceptual Overview of the Calvin cycle also known as 3-phosphoglycerate 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit.... Lipids or proteins form from the light-dependent reactions such as ATP and NADPH produced by the enzyme nicknamed RuBisCO light...

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