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endstream 1494 0 obj <>stream %PDF-1.5 "Essays on Son Preference in China During Modernization." show less strong son preference (Hua 2001), as do the Islamic groups in Western China. ��I X�}�Ԛx-�`�:C��|��]{Xg�3�BX]$j�I�6l��s{�aj��ꚴ#4=�oL�}�4-HuC|�H9#в������8��K�!>����4�B*Ď�v x��X۲�(�����+Il�>g�v�vUSsbХ[Ę��5+�e�o@�.0��ѥ���d��S�m Son preference is most prevalent in parts of East and South Asia. �C�|���r�/�.��]��I�R�A�>�+eTjDA6OF;�4�wdk*o(/8��^I��� ?~�Q��o��6I�%��.��=�G]i��Ƶ�vq�s��|"�(���]t )�b:O��ϧwB�_�("��.�A���Q?�$b}I�j�c�M�}�ݳ���7�P������,$�A�� T�4�۬T�P�[�wy��|�0OxQ������d In 1979, China installed the stringent one-child policy which firmly controls second and higher order birth, although with a few exceptions which allow couples to have two children. Sons are preferred because they have a higher … China and India have a very strong son preference. Son Preference and Second Birth in China Zhang Wenhua Stockholm University Abstract: Preference for bearing sons is a common social custom and cultural tradition in China. ,;:���a��xW�ў!7�DG�����Z�1�����n 2�Dp{1*9hy0E3H�2�����Z�Z^�����mz�̩i�Q3:�gu� endobj [���O;Э��c�G�[�@�U�J��0-vHG�Y-������*sC�d�k�,��� �L蠈' It will be several decades before the sex ratio at … China Household Income Project 2013 survey data, we nd that intrahousehold discrimination can account for a large part of the gender gap in education. << /Linearized 1 /L 791782 /H [ 4302 571 ] /O 1234 /E 53835 /N 51 /T 784135 >> endobj endstream endobj 1 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 595.32 841.92]/Parent 1475 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 1/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 2 0 obj <>stream This literature has suggested an equally abundant array of theories about family, economic, and political causes that may sustain son preferences. �F ��F�6�����W �� ���V̋؁4+s���� ���)��(�y����� a[�[ �����_�� � �0 [O PIP: This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. x��Z]k\7}ﯘ��E+i��!��n�P��������`���M�}��~Z�U�b�p=W���Όt�CL����H�&5�8�H�Tl$�Ĩ�P)T���^̻��=Ã%��G�.Y]2c_Ԃs��)�j Es�� Zl%��j� JUK]W���m,a3>��a�̀�Q���0�jc����a�\�F�@ɳb)�R(:saJ[��Q�U2%����3�J�Ԃ�aً�4�[���̢;��r���"[�r��2��qP�oH�@Zl��p֙A�$�j��t����5Z )lc�@��1���Pi�T8�|���b��D����[kTlo�DU�Y`,^c�"U�#����>Q� FRj�+T��g�E�ͬJ-*R�K�c(�����2R+Re�S+Y���6��'�Çf1�̳�;k ��lΦ���k���&�7�M� ^끕��4��1���ꂙ���Dy3CU7�\�Vl;-��+-h��6�lg �([Y*ۺL�G�h��~V��c��f�ۉ~���^�_���c�yB[ϯ/�߾^L��U��C/�=]on�����x��w����.h�ry=���c�w Ł#�X�f��V����ϷK�}�zC�Wf?Y���}L[���K�s��my�/����oh��q=����C���$��SNN��So�2;�=&�x9;��J8�$�I-��$���S�N�V;o=Iu��xҏ�yy 666 Son Preference in Rural China the lethal neglect of girls. ��}M_U/���,�5���` ��T� The combined factors of son preference, the one-child policy and the availability of prenatal sex-identification technology have allowed prenatal discrimination to spread since the mid-1980s in both urban and rural areas in China where abortion is legal. %%EOF Son preference exists in many countries, particularly in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa (Koolwal, 2007; Lin, Liu, & Qian, 2014; Oster, 2009; Rohlfs, Reed, & Yamada, 2010; Rossi & Rouanet, 2015). stream Recent studies on the growth of sex-selective abortion in India suggest that women and families in wealthier households and communities merely change the way they implement son preference, not the preference itself. That is to say, if the older of two brothers already has a son, … �S��x _#goQ�bF���L,x��A�I?�H�WLFM��l6�[wt�In1�H(����4����x�L�Y�E�c&�?l���+�P�ş��n�0L�G8����q3���ak��}i�Z@Jޔl!0��IG0��� MY� About 37–45% of China's missing females may have been missing at birth. ���ņ���1K�u�MkvS߾��Wt��m��㖚ژw�zCI|q/9�DPӵ"��P���� �.�=�nu�x�)m���ᶟZN�$ޒ����։����S����k�7� ��O�S7N|��ݐ=���������ta�s�,�߅v����k2�� ���~z������j�|Xg��ǿohZ��������P��sr�vs�_7�6��;�`w.X�I��I��̣�L�J㣩Rz�`}woA����&��h�K��KySu�%����/ĿE� Preference for sons continues to be a factor … Son preference is often thought to be an important cause of imbalance in the sex ratio at birth [3–5]. ��±e��.3h1��X=q������@xiR~)�[�Xc|���YhT>�Uq����k%b�1�i�9-��;��k���)�̆������K�w�X�UƊ��)�,\����� �w6�����x�+�\���ż]l�(UUSPT�"z��1t�"���,U/��j�Z"~\�p��1_w�X�W���g��3N=_��1�r>��Q=�"U\n�ڋ�zm�մ��I�Gx�?CB�(>X�ʗ��0O��7c����Xӑ�6�� Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. This technological progress leads to a large excess of male births. Contrary to popular belief, son compulsion remained steady in rural China (at around 10 per cent) while it increased in urban China in the 1990s (from 2.8 per cent to 4.5 per cent). �`Z0g[�|�>P=h�+$MϷ�j%`��4AX�&I>`+�g(�`���x��ޖ�o�o$S�h����px��y!ݬ"0�O�V7�}Є��.Br���nģ? We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. 1231 0 obj �"q?���|���L/0evw j�� searching for Son preference in China 5 found (6 total) alternate case: son preference in China. Contrary to popular belief, son compulsion remained steady in rural China (at around 10 per cent) while it increased in urban China in the 1990s (from 2.8 per cent to 4.5 per cent). This is the result of many factors, such as the Confucian cultural tradition, the socioeconomic system, and gender ideology. Son Preference and Fertility in Korea, China and the United States | Min, Hosik | ISBN: 9783639176407 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. �!d�t����_�W��o���M7��b=���a(�U��Ϸo�0��߷w�����C�C��q�w�W�?+����W�. endstream endobj 1478 0 obj <>/Metadata 75 0 R/Pages 1475 0 R/StructTreeRoot 91 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1479 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 595.32 841.92]/Parent 1475 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 1480 0 obj <>stream 4 Using a small subset of a population from Anhui … 1229 0 obj The preference for sons in contemporary China is well known, but most studies have focused on the deficit in the supply of brides and its negative consequences for men (e.g., Wei and Zhang 2011; Edlund et al. With data from the Two-per-thousand National Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception conducted in 1988 by the State Family Planning Commission of China, the hazard of having a second birth among 62+ thousand married women who have had a first birth, and the hazard of having a third … Sociologist Lisa Eklund from Lund University in Sweden has studied why families in China have a preference for sons. endobj In China, where son preference has historically been strong, sons are needed to carry out farmwork, offer financial support to aging parents, continue the family name and receive the family inheritance; in the past, they also were responsible for ancestor worship. An emotive account of the preference for male babies in China gives a misleading impression, believes Thérèse Hesketh on the basis of her experience as a paediatrician there For thousands of years a preference for sons has been prevalent in an arc of countries from east Asia through south Asia to the Middle East and north Africa. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. (�m��Mg�3κ���P��|s.K�v��f�Aq 2013). x��Y]o�}��0o�.bF��/����n��b�M�@w���r���hH����wf(ʒ�ys9g��p������w���?��߁���U �� With data from the Two-per-thousand National Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception conducted in 1988 by the State Family Planning … The authors attribute this to their similar family systems, which generate strong disincentives to raise daughters while valuing adult women's contributions to the household. %PDF-1.5 %���� Girl (8,041 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article creates a bias against females. Traditionally, the bloodline passes through the male side. There is growing evidence in China that son preference is on the decline. endstream endobj 1483 0 obj <>stream ��� �4ɹ��\� *:QQ��H���␒P�S��";�j!�Y߸�m.��|z�CHM)��@X�h���@�������Ǿ��bkE-�D�t�}P�)���vD�_��N��j�~\P�:�ʡFdDl�>��L/���|dO����%�@�j� Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. This policy was introduced in China in 1979. In addition, the effect of son preference on the compliance is not altered by government control. Nie, Lingyun (2008). Son Preference in India Reeve Vanneman Sonalde Desai Kriti Vikram University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Abstract An abundant literature has documented son preferences in large parts of Korea, China, India, and the Near East. �P��HR�2Gʺ�D���'�4h�$iz�#eۮ�)N^�� 1�{�SL�!&r�6��4�D�ѰnLb#�l!BI������(\jdS�"ש�IL�*���$�k,��"���I���Ҟ�4��=��a< 1q�()�LCL�3 ��w�jt^/��b�����T��z��A�ݘ�����|��� ���p���V�~ E:d����Y1��q\� �n�zs�n (����T Q����@Tm�+i_����g'* �4ˁ��Nt�~e���>'��W9��(. Policy-makers are addressing some causes of the high sex ratio at birth, but more could be done. �A���(�LHo����X��A=��ܮ2ICȤULmI���9(c��ى�τ�E�0���_�ցҁ�� zp���o�ΙI�ܣ�e! A collective model generates predictions concerning the impact of the birth of sons on family behaviour when son preference is treated as a premium in the father’s utility function. ޷���/�u|�3�8#�A w���>@9�$�d��[ϓS�M�M�]���!u|�ز:Jڮ���;/����� x�c```b`8�����j� � `6+����$�8@��,`�q'� ��?LkaH> �Ǡ}���s>��+N8p�0�� |�~ë�,|� � L�� << /Type /XRef /Length 71 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Columns 4 /Predictor 12 >> /W [ 1 2 1 ] /Index [ 1229 205 ] /Info 145 0 R /Root 1231 0 R /Size 1434 /Prev 784136 /ID [<8e026fed72391654c8ae50c5adb3971a>] >> h�ܕ]o�0����ݎ�3�-UH� mR׋�IU/2� $��[�����t�n�(��>��}��C��AT(�c`�Hh �BRr04R It is found that son preference is still prevalent in China. China is characterized by a low fertility intention, a strong preference for sons, as well as a stringent birth control policy. This is suggested by the ways in which the diffusion of ultrasound technologies into China's agricultural provinces has mirrored patterns in the timing, increase, and spatial spread of masculinized sex ratios (Banister 2004). << /Type /ObjStm /Length 1223 /Filter /FlateDecode /N 95 /First 959 >> Is there still preference for male offspring in modern China and who is in fact responsible for the continuity of this trend? At the time of the census in 2005, almost 121 boys were born for every 100 girls. �d5P��.ţďMP�r�i�M�������>��uI�c����|��eš�*S'r���E$U�:�˄����He'/��JR�>�;�Ox These findings are consistent with other research. Although the effect of son preference is not the most important, urbanization, education, and occupation have not fundamentally changed its influence on women's compliance. According to the Global Gender Gap Report 2018, China ranked dead last among 149 countries in terms of “sex ratio at birth”. u̓��V�����LĽ�7T��_)����$�&E�)?_ E��I�&A�*��`���^�#�8-cO�qq�wqh���*L���Th{�O:u�I3'��x���Ds���Z�#ӆx�YT� stream A preference for sons in China, India and South Korea combined with easy access to sex-selective abortions has led to a significant imbalance between … The roots of son-preference lie deep in Chinese culture. Introduction: Preference for male o spring in China It is well-known that Chinese families traditionally have a preference for sons: I Sons carry on the family name; inherit the family’s wealth; take care of the parents in old age. This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural china. in Philosophy in Agricultural and Resource Economics: University of California, Berkeley. 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