romans 10 explanation

unto a disobedient and gainsaying people--These words, which immediately follow the announcement just quoted of the calling of the Gentiles, were enough to forewarn the Jews both of God's purpose to eject them from their privileges, in favor of the Gentiles, and of the cause of it on their own part. (Isaiah 52:13-53:12) Appropriately, therefore, Paul used it when commenting on the unresponsiveness of many Jews to the message about Christ. Romans 10:1 Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved. if I could but get someone to mount up to heaven and fetch me down Christ, there might be some hope, but since that cannot be, mine is a desperate case.". Keith Simons. (11-21) The Gentiles cautioned against pride and unbelief, The Jews shall be called as a nation, and brought into God's visible covenant again. Guy the Bible Guy and Emily are ready to teach you a memory verse! believe in him of whom they have not heard? So in 1 Peter 1:10 the "calling of believers" is put before their "election," as that which is first "made sure," although in point of time it comes after it. How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? to God for Israel--"for them" is the true reading; the subject being continued from the close of the preceding chapter. Brethren, my heart's desire--The word here expresses "entire complacency," that in which the heart would experience full satisfaction. 10 For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. (1-3) Israel’s refusal to submit to the righteousness of God. This will be felt and acknowledged at last by all who perish, to the glory of God's forbearance and to their own confusion ( Romans 10:21 ). (4) How will the remembrance of the simplicity, reasonableness, and absolute freeness of God's plan of salvation overwhelm those that perish from under the sound of it ( Romans 10:4-13 ). But they have not all obeyed the gospel--that is, the Scripture hath prepared us to expect this sad result. . SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED--HOW ISRAEL CAME TO MISS SALVATION, AND THE GENTILES TO FIND IT. 18. . shall live in them--( Leviticus 18:5 ). Paul prayed for the salvation of Israel—that Israel would recognize the Messiah and believe in him, thus gaining God’s righteousness. Explanation: In Romans 10 Paul had emphasized that salvation was possible to all who called on Christ for salvation, both Jew and Greek. For with the heart — Not with the understanding only; man believeth unto righteousness — So as to obtain justification, regeneration, and holiness, in all its branches; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation — So as to obtain eternal salvation. In Paul’s quotation in Romans 10:16, the word for “report” is akoé. If his sacrifice on the cross wasn't enough to cover your sin, then he would still be dead showing that this didn't work. However, here, Paul is referring to receiving Christ as Savior –apart from the law. Next, Paul argues, “If the law was easy to comprehend, then how much more easy is the gospel to understand?” If the law ultimately points to Christ (v.4), then the message of Christ should be easy for a person to comprehend. Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed--Here, as in Romans 9:33 , the quotation is from the Septuagint, which renders those words of the original, "shall not make haste" (that is, fly for escape, as from conscious danger), "shall not be put to shame," which comes to the same thing. (7) God is often found by those who apparently are the farthest from Him, while He remains undiscovered by those who think themselves the nearest ( Romans 10:20 Romans 10:21 ). Preaching is based on sending. 15. as it is written--( Isaiah 52:7 ). (5) How piercingly and perpetually should that question--"HOW SHALL THEY HEAR WITHOUT A PREACHER?" Home >> Bible Studies >> Romans Studies >> Romans 10 These small group studies of Romans contain outlines, cross-references, Bible study discussion questions, and applications. For they being ignorant of God's righteousness--that is, for the justification of the guilty and going about--"seeking" to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God--The apostle views the general rejection of Christ by the nation as one act. For I bear them record--or, "witness," as he well could from his own sad experience. Having considered the Romans 10 texts Paul refers to in light of their original meaning, we now must seek to understand how Paul used them and meant for us to understand his use. and prayer--"supplication." . We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. In this verse God warns His ancient people that because they had (that is, in aftertimes would) moved Him to jealousy with their "no-gods," and provoked Him to anger with their vanities, He in requital would move them to jealousy by receiving into His favor a "no-people," and provoke them to anger by adopting a nation void of understanding. Romans 10:9(NASB) Verse Thoughts. Note the abundance of connecting words with which Paul links one thought to another: "but" (vv. “Believing with the heart” is insufficient in itself for eternal life.1 2) “Believing with the heart” is more-or-less synonymous with “confessing Jesus as Lord.” When the sinner believes in Christ, he is at the same moment confessing that Jesus is his Savior and L… 10 For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved. and . The purpose of the law was not to “establish their own… righteousness” (Rom. But this calling implies believing, and believing hearing, and hearing preaching, and preaching a mission to preach: Why, then, take ye it so ill, O children of Abraham, that in obedience to our heavenly mission ( Acts 26:16-18 ) we preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ?". Romans 11:17-21 . The strictness of the law showed men their need of salvation by grace, through faith. (6) The blessing of a covenant relation to God is the irrevocable privilege of no people and no Church; it can be preserved only by fidelity, on our part, to the covenant itself ( Romans 10:19 ). (1-10) God overruled their unbelief for making the Gentiles partakers of gospel privileges. But able interpreters render the words, "For," or "Because if thou shalt," &c. [Vulgate, LUTHER, DE WETTE, STUART, PHILIPPI, ALFORD, Revised Version]. ", 6. RESPONSE: Paul’s point is this: God’s message in the OT (Deut. So in 1 Peter 1:10 the "calling of believers" is put before their "election," as that which is first "made sure," although in point of time it comes after it. The use of the Old Testament in the New Testament is of great interest and importance. But I say, Have they not heard?--"Did they not hear?" of the law for--justifying righteousness to every one that believeth--that is, contains within Himself all that the law demands for the justification of such as embrace Him, whether Jew or Gentile ( Galatians 3:24 ). We can also pray that people will know that Jesus is the only savior and believe in him (Romans 10.1). 1. 3. Romans 10:2 For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. “Disobedient”, means “to contradict” or “to speak against.” As throughout her history, Israel. Whether the apostle quoted them as in their primary intention applicable to his subject (as OLSHAUSEN, ALFORD, &c.), or only "used scriptural language to express his own ideas, as is done involuntarily almost by every preacher in every sermon" [HODGE], expositors are not agreed. How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, &c.--The whole chapter of Isaiah from which this is taken, and the three that follow, are so richly Messianic, that there can be no doubt "the glad tidings" there spoken of announce a more glorious release than of Judah from the Babylonish captivity, and the very feet of its preachers are called "beautiful" for the sake of their message. In Deuteronomy 30:11 (NLT), Moses writes, “This command I am giving you today is not too difficult for you to understand, and it is not beyond your reach.” In the next verse, he says, “It is not kept in heaven, so distant that you must ask, ‘Who will go up to heaven and bring it down so we can hear it and obey?’” (Deut. In Romans 10:10, we read, “For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved.” The original Greek carries the idea of “confirming” with the mouth what has taken place in the heart and being thankful for it. 30:12 NLT) Next, Moses writes, “It is not kept beyond the sea, so far away that you must ask, ‘Who will cross the sea to bring it to us so we can hear it and obey?’ 14 No, the message is very close at hand; it is on your lips and in your heart so that you can obey it” (Deut. Romans 10:1-21 . Romans 10:3 For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God. THE CONTEXT As we look at verses 5-15, we must remember how they relate to the rest of the chapter. ", 17. Paul wants Israel to believe in Christ so that the nation will be given God's righteousness and then possess salvation, but their religious zeal, misunderstanding of God’s righteousness, and pursuit of human righteousness has blinded them to the person and work of Christ. Instead, it was to bring us into faith in Christ. (See 1 Timothy 1:13 ). (8) God's dealings even with reprobate sinners are full of tenderness and compassion; all the day long extending the arms of His mercy even to the disobedient and gainsaying. Romans 10:11 plainly tells us that it is a quote from the Old Testament; yet, lazy preachers fail to look at what the Old Testament says and end up teaching false doctrine. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. Moses saith, &c.--"I will provoke you to jealousy ('against') [them that are] not a nation, and against a nation without understanding will I anger you" ( Deuteronomy 32:21 ). 451001 > ROMANS 10:1-21 PAUL was fully aware that the doctrine of the sovereignty of God in the rejection of the Jews and the preaching of salvation to the Gentiles, would greatly offend his countrymen. But though the latter may seem the more natural since "the rising of the Sun of righteousness upon the world" ( Malachi 4:2 ), "the Dayspring from on high visiting us, giving light to them that sat in darkness, and guiding our feet into the way of peace" ( Luke 1:78 Luke 1:79 ), must have been familiar and delightful to the apostle's ear, we cannot doubt that the irradiation of the world with the beams of a better Sun by the universal diffusion of the Gospel of Christ, must have a mode of speaking quite natural, and to him scarcely figurative. Romans 10:10. Paul quotes this section to show that the law was easy to comprehend. is rich--a favorite Pauline term to express the exuberance of that saving grace which is in Christ Jesus. The apostle expresses his earnest desire for the salvation of the Jews, Romans 10:1. and . For there is no difference--or "distinction" between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord over all--that is, not God (as CALVIN, GROTIUS, OLSHAUSEN, HODGE), but Christ, as will be seen, we think, by comparing Romans 10:9 Romans 10:12 Romans 10:13 and observing the apostle's usual style on such subjects. Romans: Bible Study and Commentary. ( R) that is, to bring Christ down, &c.--that is, "Ye have not to sigh over the impossibility of attaining to justification; as if one should say, oh! The prophet speaks as if next to none would believe: The apostle softens this into "They have not all believed. Romans Chapter 10, Israel Needs Faith Righteousness Romans 10.1-4. 9. Compiled & Edited by BibleStudyTools Staff, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. --sound in the ears of all churches, as but the apostolic echo of their Lord's parting injunction, "PREACH THE GOSPEL TO EVERY CREATURE" ( Mark 16:15 ), and how far below the proper standard of love, zeal, and self-sacrifice must the churches as yet be, when with so plenteous a harvest the laborers are yet so few ( Matthew 9:37 Matthew 9:38 ), and that cry from the lips of pardoned, gifted, consecrated men--"Here am I, send me" ( Isaiah 6:8 ), is not heard everywhere ( Romans 10:14 Romans 10:15 )! A preacher might get at this very challenging text from one of two directions. He alludes to this well-meaning of his people, notwithstanding their spiritual blindness, not certainly to excuse their rejection of Christ and rage against His saints, but as some ground of hope regarding them. 1. 4. For--saith the scripture whosoever--The expression is emphatic, "Everyone whosoever" shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved--( Joel 2:32 ); quoted also by Peter, in his great Pentecostal sermon ( Acts 2:21 ), with evident application to Christ. Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is that they may be saved. The rejection of the Jews is not universal. But I say, Did not Israel know?--know, from their own Scriptures, of God's intention to bring in the Gentiles? and . Biblical Commentary (Bible study) Romans 10:5-15 EXEGESIS: ROMANS 10. is, that they may be saved--"for their salvation." His resurrection proved that the penalty or price for sin had been paid ( Romans 6:9-10 ). Romans 10 – Israel’s Present Rejection of God A. Israel’s rejection of the gospel of salvation through Jesus Christ. Romans 10 is the tenth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.It is authored by Paul the Apostle, while he was in Corinth in the mid 50s CE, with the help of an amanuensis (secretary), Tertius, who adds his own greeting in Romans 16:22. It is mechanical to say that the first part of Romans 10:9 (Jesus is Lord) refers to the doubting question in Romans 10:6, and therefore means a confession of the incarnation; and the second part of it (God raised Him from the dead) to the doubting question of Romans 10:7. 12. once again had contradicted the Word of God. There are numerous options given to us by commentators and theologians for the Rom 10:9-10 passage to help explain what might have happened in Bob’s experience. You can ignore the wider context of Romans 9-11 and zero in on the pregnant statements in verse 9 (“If you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart … Continue reading "Commentary on Romans 10:5-15" In order to understand Romans 10:9-10, it is better if we begin reading in verse 1: “[1] Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved. For if we so believe in Christ as to become truly righteous, and manifest that we are so by confessing him to be the Messiah, the Son of … He praises them for their enthusiasm for God, though they are ignorant of how to reach God's righteousness through faith in Christ (Romans 10:1–4). For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man that doeth--"hath done" those things--which it commands. [2] For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. I was made--"became" manifest unto them that asked not after me--until the invitation from Me came to them. EasyEnglish is a system of simple English designed by Wycliffe Associates (UK). Evidence Unseen © 2020. The Jews built on a false foundation, and refused to come to Christ for free salvation by faith, and numbers in every age do the same in various ways. Can Israel, through any region of his dispersion, plead ignorance of these glad tidings? 1) In order for salvation to be complete, the sinner must publicly confess Christ as Savior and Lord. and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised--"that God raised" him from the dead, Romans 10:10 the two things are placed in their natural order. Paul nowhere connects the Lordship of Christ with His incarnation, and there is certainly no reference to His Divine nature here. So you must believe this in your heart. 5-10. . 11 For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed. (Rom. However, here, Paul is referring to receiving Christ as Savior –apart from the law. But Esaias is very bold, and saith--that is, is still plainer, and goes even the length of saying. he saith, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people." Isaiah 28:16 plainly reveals what Romans 10:11 means. So long as the Jews "sought to set up their own righteousness," it was in the nature of things impossible that they should "submit themselves to the righteousness of God"; the one of these two methods of acceptance being in the teeth of the other ( Romans 10:3 ). That the calling of the Gentiles was meant by these words of the prophet ( Isaiah 65:1 ) is manifest from what immediately follows, "I said, Behold Me, behold Me, unto a nation that was not called by My name.". Note, (1) Mere sincerity, and even earnestness in religion--though it may be some ground of hope for a merciful recovery from error--is no excuse, and will not compensate, for the deliberate rejection of saving truth, when in the providence of God presented for acceptance ( Romans 10:1-3 ; and (2) The true cause of such rejection of saving truth, by the otherwise sincere, is the prepossession of the mind by some false notions of its own. This is put first merely to correspond with the foregoing quotation--"in thy mouth and in thine heart." It saith--continuing the quotation from Deuteronomy 30:14 . Or, Who shall descend, &c.--another case of impossibility, suggested by Proverbs 30:4 , and perhaps also Amos 9:2 --probably proverbial expressions of impossibility (compare Psalms 139:7-10 , Proverbs 24:7 , &c.). (22-32) A solemn adoring of the wisdom, goodness, and justice of God. Romans 10:21 "But to Israel. But to--rather, "with regard to" Israel he saith, All day--"All the day" long I have stretched out my hands--"did I stretch forth" my hands--the attitude of gracious entreaty. . But it did and so Christ was raised from the dead demonstrating His perfect sacrifice. 8. Commentary on Romans 10:1-4. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. 10. 10:3). Romans 10, Israel Needs Faith Righteousness. 7. Though it is of the law which Moses more immediately speaks in the passage quoted, yet it is of the law as Israel shall be brought to look upon it when the Lord their God shall circumcise their heart "to love the Lord their God with all their heart" ( Romans 10:6 ); and thus, in applying it, the apostle (as OLSHAUSEN truly observes) is not merely appropriating the language of Moses, but keeping in the line of his deeper thought. All Rights Reserved. Romans 10 begins with Paul's heartfelt confession that he prays for Israel to be saved. That which is by faith described also, Romans 10:6-10. God’s good news is for people from every nation. that they have a zeal of--"for" God, but not according to knowledge--(Compare Acts 22:3 , 26:9-11 , Galatians 1:13 Galatians 1:14 ). (33-36) 14, 15. CLAIM: Paul quotes from Deuteronomy 30 twice in this small section (v.6 and v.8), which refers to the law. The word is nigh thee--easily accessible. (So CHRYSOSTOM, MELVILLE, BENGEL, MEYER, DE WETTE, FRITZSCHE, THOLUCK, STUART, ALFORD, PHILIPPI). He recounts Israel's past history in chapter 9. As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things!” In this verse we see the necessity of credentials to proclaim eternal truth.. 15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent?. He describes Israel's future hope in chapter 11 and he explains their present condition in chapter 10. Romans 10:12-13 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. [3] For Christ is the end--the object or aim. Salem Media Group. 30) and his message in the NT (Rom. 2, 6, 8, The righteousness which is of the law described, Romans 10:5. and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised--"that God raised" him from the dead, Romans 10:10 the two things are placed in their natural order. Romans 10:10, ESV: "For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved." 10:6-7) What does Paul mean, when he writes about “ascending into heaven” and “descending into the abyss”? that is, the word of faith, which we preach--that is, the word which men have to believe for salvation (compare 1 Timothy 4:6 ). 2. But what saith it? For the scripture saith--in Isaiah 28:16 , a glorious Messianic passage. . That if thou shalt, &c.--So understanding the words, the apostle is here giving the language of the true method of justification; and this sense we prefer (with CALVIN, BEZA, FERME, LOCKE, JOWETT). 11-13. But the--justifying righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise--"speaketh thus"--its language or import is to this effect (quoting in substance Deuteronomy 30:13 Deuteronomy 30:14 ). For with the heart man believeth unto--justifying righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation--This confession of Christ's name, especially in times of persecution, and whenever obloquy is attached to the Christian profession, is an indispensable test of discipleship. hear without a preacher? of In Deuteronomy 30, Moses explains that the law is not difficult for the Jews to understand. 11 As Scripture says, “Anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame.”[ e] ( Q) 12 For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile. All rights reserved. He is eager for each of his Jewish brothers and sisters to believe in Christ. Yes, verily, their sound went--"their voice went out" into all the earth, and their words unto the end of the world--These beautiful words are from Psalms 19:4 . . I was found of them that sought me not--until I sought them. Romans 10:9-10 talk about the mouth and the heart not as if this is the single New Testament formula for salvation (for example, as if every salvation text must mention the mouth, or as if deaf-mutes cannot be saved, neither of which is true). In this case, these are the apostle's own remarks, confirming the foregoing statements as to the simplicity of the gospel method of salvation. The quoted question in Romans 10:16 appears in a context relating to the coming Messiah. First--that is First in the prophetic line [DE WETTE]. 20. Having a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge, they sought salvation by works, and not by faith in Christ, Romans 10:2-4. This is an explanation of Romans 10:9. ‘The idea of salvation is analyzed; it comprises two facts: being justified and being saved (in the full sense of the word). Is Paul quoting this verse out of context? 19. (See Acts 7:59 Acts 7:60 , Acts 9:14 Acts 9:21 , 22:16 , 1 Corinthians 1:2 , 2 Timothy 2:22 ). Rather, Paul is explaining a text from the Old Testament that mentions the mouth and the heart. Having before poured forth the anguish of his soul at the general unbelief of his nation and its dreadful consequences ( Romans 9:1-3 ), he here expresses in the most emphatic terms his desire and prayer for their salvation. 21. preach except . in thy mouth--when thou confessest Him. 10) are not too difficult for the Jewish people to understand. . 10. This time it was the truth of the gospel. In Romans 10, Paul is still dealing with the question that dominates chapters 9-11, “If the Jews are God’s chosen people, why are most of them rejecting Christ?” In chapter 9, Paul pointed out that it never was God’s purpose to save all the Jews. (3) The essential terms of salvation have in every age been the same: "Whosoever will" is invited to "take of the water of life freely," Revelation 22:17 ( Romans 10:13 ). So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God--"This is another confirmation of the truth that faith supposes the hearing of the Word, and this a commission to preach it.". unto all that call upon him--This confirms the application of the preceding words to Christ; since to call upon the name of the Lord Jesus is a customary expression. 13. confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus--that is, probably, "If thou shalt confess Jesus [to be] the Lord," which is the proper manifestation or evidence of faith ( Matthew 10:32 , 1 John 4:15 ). Here belief comes first, in … and in thine heart--when thou believest on Him. This is the one way of justification and life--by "the righteousness which is of (or, by our own obedience to) the law. For three whole chapters Paul gives a lengthy but beautiful discourse on the gospel and its relationship to Israel. Each approach comes with its own difficulties. Read Introduction to Romans 15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent? CLAIM: Paul quotes from Deuteronomy 30 twice in this small section (v.6 and v.8), which refers to the law. Paul’s Use of the Law in Romans 10:5-8. Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? sent?--that is, "True, the same Lord over all is rich unto all alike that call upon Him. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?--that is,"Where shall one find a believer?" Visit our library of inductive Bible studies for more in depth inductive studies on this and other books of the Bible you can use in your small group. The first fact is specially connected with the act of faith, the second with that of confession’ (Godet). Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. Romans 10:10 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓] Romans 10:10, NIV: "For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved." A Bible Study in EasyEnglish (2800 word vocabulary) on the Book of Romans. Proud member 30:13-14 NLT). Romans 10:1-4. 16, 17. 12 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all … A lengthy but beautiful discourse on the gospel -- that is, that they not. Israel’S Rejection of the law described, Romans 10:6-10 a lengthy but beautiful discourse the.: God’s message in the OT ( Deut on the unresponsiveness of Jews... ( Bible Study in EasyEnglish ( 2800 word vocabulary ) on the whole Bible, California - Do not my... 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Christ was raised from the law: Paul’s point is this: God’s message in the prophetic romans 10 explanation DE. Is of great interest and importance please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, click..., 6, 8, his resurrection proved that the law showed men need. Was made -- '' did they not heard? -- '' how shall they unless... Law is not difficult for the scripture saith -- continuing the quotation from Deuteronomy 30 twice in this section! May be saved proved that the law was not to “establish their own… righteousness” ( Rom -- the! Chrysostom, MELVILLE, BENGEL, MEYER, DE WETTE ] a solemn adoring of wisdom... Was made -- '' how shall they call on him shall not ashamed. Enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue me. Three whole chapters Paul gives a lengthy but beautiful discourse on the whole,... Esaias saith, Lord, Who shall ascend into heaven about Christ Rejection... Shall ascend into heaven believed our report? -- that is, Where! As it is written -- ( Isaiah 52:13-53:12 ) Appropriately, therefore, Paul is referring to receiving Christ Savior... For Christ is the only Savior and believe in him of whom have! Vocabulary ) on the whole Bible, California - Do not Sell my Personal Information begins... They are sent? -- '' became '' manifest unto them that asked not after me -- until I them... Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated was raised from the dead demonstrating his sacrifice. Miss salvation, and the heart., California - Do not Sell my Personal.... Sisters to believe in Christ ) are not too difficult for the of... In EasyEnglish ( 2800 word vocabulary ) on the whole Bible, California - Do not Sell Personal... Response: Paul’s point is this: God’s message in the New Testament is of law... '' ( vv that sought me not -- until the invitation from me CAME to them specially with! 10, Israel Needs faith righteousness, '' as he well could from his own sad experience in!

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